Saturday, 25 August 2012

Nuclear Waste Workers' Radioactive Fate, Orchid Island

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在【國境邊陲】系列報導的當中的「蘭嶼核廢料貯存場與檢整」與「不『低階』的低階核廢料貯存場」,我們分別簡介了蘭嶼核廢料貯存場的「檢整」,並推估貯存場所貯放的核廢料現狀,然後從我們看到的資料中,對檢整的過程提出質疑;而這一篇,將繼續針對工作現場的照片,以從對曾經在貯存場工作的工作人員的訪談當中,繼續這些提問。
In "borders frontier" series reported of among of "blue Island nuclear waste storage field and checked whole" and "does not" low order "of low order nuclear waste storage field", we respectively introduction has blue Island nuclear waste storage field of "checked whole", and push revaluation storage places storage placed of nuclear waste status, then from we see of data in the, on checked whole of process made questioned; and this a article, will continues to for work scene of photos, to from on had in storage field work of staff of interview among, continues to these Hon.
我們的兩位受訪者A與B,分屬施作與監工單位,他們在貯存場檢整期間,有幾乎全程參與的經驗;在此,我們首先感謝兩位願意勇敢地站出來,為我們揭露 貯存場的真相,核能設施有高度危險性,而其不為外人知的運作方式,加上大量利用臨時人員從事危險性工作(請參見2011/04/15 苦勞報導 「為了一份臨時工作,冒著輻射危險的日本工人」)的現象,造成工作人員與環境的傷害,實在需要更多人,本於道德勇氣,讓社會大眾正確了解、認識。
We interviewed A, and B, min is effects made and supervision units, they in storage field checked whole during, has almost full participation of experience; this, we first thanks two bit willing to brave to station out, for we revealed storage field of truth, nuclear energy facilities has height risk, and its does not for outsiders know of operation way, plus large uses temporary personnel engaged in risk work (please see 2011/04/15 elbow grease reported "to a copies temporary work, Risk of radiation risk Japan workers ") phenomenon, the staff and the environmental damage caused, there is a need for more people, in moral courage, right knowledge, awareness of the community.
核廢料的危險性 Dangers of nuclear waste

首先,我們利用A在2011年4月6號,在一天之中,在貯存場裡,帶著劑量器,隨意走動、拍攝的照片,比對我們在「」文中的推估:
First, we use a on April 6, 2011, in the midst of a day, storage sites, with doses, free to move around, photographs, than to our "no" estimates in the article:

6930713783_7d6bb9ffff_b.jpg這是2011年4月6號,在一天之中拍攝到的照片;顯示蘭嶼核廢It was on April 6, 2011, photos captured in one day show Orchid spent nuclear
料貯存場所貯存的核廢料仍有相當高的輻射劑量。(照片來源:A)
Material storage site for the storage of nuclear waste still has a very high dose of radiation. (Photo source: a)
我們先假設貯存場中核廢料的核種,如台電所說「99%以上是『鈷60(半衰期5.26年)』」,以及廢料桶進場管制的劑量上限是「每小時20毫西 弗」;拍攝這些照片的2011年4月,這些核廢料大約正在它們的第3(1996年進場),以及第5個半衰期(1971年進場)之間,也就是最高的表面劑量 應該界在每小時0.625到每小時5毫西弗之間(請參考「」文中「這一張圖片」);照片中所顯示的劑量,都還在這個範圍內,不過A能在一天之中,就拍到10個以上超過2毫西弗的廢料桶,這顯示貯存場裡,有這樣高劑量的桶子,為數並不少。
We first assumptions storage field in the nuclear waste of nuclear species, as Taiwan Electric by said "99% above is" cobalt 60 (half-life 5.26 years) "", and waste barrels approaching control of dose ceiling is "each hours 20 cents West Francesca"; shooting these photos of April 2011, these nuclear waste about is they of 3rd (1996 approaching), and 5th a half-life (1971 approaching) Zhijian, is Supreme of surface dose should territories in each hours 0.625 to each hours 5 cents Seaver Zhijian (please reference "No" in the text "this picture"); dose shown in the photos, are also within this range, however a day, would take more than 2 cents to more than 10 Seaver of waste bins, this shows that the storage site, there is such a high dose of the keg, not small number.

我們比對一下貯存場工作規範關於「輻射劑量」的規定,承包檢整工程的永樂公司主任黃光如說,原能會規定,在核能設施工作的工人,一小時劑量上限是 500微西弗,而在貯存場,依「合理抑低」原則,把行政管制值降為每小時300微西弗。3毫西弗就是3,000微西弗,換算下來,假設一個工人近距離在這 個桶子旁邊工作,只要6分鐘就會達到300微西弗這個劑量。
We than the storage specification for field work on "radiation dose" provisions of the Contracting Unit Director Huang Guangru Lo Wing-lok, said of the whole project, the original provision will be workers in nuclear energy facilities, one hour is the maximum dose of 500 microsieverts, while in storage sites, according to the "reasonable low inhibition" principle, administrative control value is reduced to 300 microsieverts per hour. 3 NG Seaver is 3,000 microsieverts, conversion, suppose a worker working in this next to the keg at close range, as long as 6 minutes you will reach the 300 microsieverts that dose.
在永樂公司出示的工人劑量統計裡,每個工人偶而有一天超過300微西弗、但是不到500微西弗的情形,假如我們用每天工作8小時,加班的話,12小 時的工作來看,要這樣恐怕很困難;黃光如說,只要進入管制區就需要佩帶「劑量器」,工人身上佩帶的劑量器有兩種,一種是「配章(熱發光計)」,裡面的紀錄 會送到台灣去解讀,另一種是可以看得到數值的「輔助劑量器(個人警報器,輻射超量就會發出聲響)」;讓工人不會超過輻射劑量的方法,是每人每天最多在壕溝 裡待2個小時,同時只要一達到300微西弗,這個人這一天就不能再進去;那為什麼紀錄上,會有人超過300微西弗?黃光如解釋,這是因為在工作的時候,有 的時候桶子吊到一半,承受的劑量已經達到300微西弗,但是工作不能夠停下來,繼續工作就會到這樣的劑量。

In Lo Wing-Lok company produced of workers dose statistics in, each workers even and has a days over 300 micro-Seaver, and but does not to 500 micro-Seaver of situations, if we with daily work 8 hours, overtime words, 12 hours of work view, to such I'm afraid is difficulties; Huang Guangru said, as long as entered control area on needs wearing "dose Manager", workers body wearing of dose Manager has two species, a is "distribution chapter (hot glow meter)", inside of records will sent to Taiwan to interpretation, another a is can see are numerical of " Supporting dose (personal alarms excess radiation will beep) "workers do not exceed the dose of radiation, is up in the trenches for 2 hours per person per day, at the same time as soon as you reach 300 microsieverts, this person you cannot in this day; that's why on the record, it was more than 300 micro-West River? Huang Guangru explains that this is because when at work, sometimes the keg is hanging halfway withstand doses had reached 300 microsieverts, but the work could not be stopped, continued to work to the dose.

重點在「處理中心」Focus on "processing centre"

「這是在騙人!重點不在壕溝,在處理中心」A說,在壕溝裡面,是屬於重體力的工作,不需要規定,一般一個人要工作超過1個小時也很困難,而會在壕溝 裏面工作,那是「取桶」的作業,桶子取出來要做什麼?要進行分類處理,所謂的「處理中心」,所處理的是「第二類(除銹補漆)」,以及「第四類(破碎桶、需 要固化處理)」這兩種。
 "This is a lie! Focus is not in the trenches, in the processing centre "a say, in the trenches, belonged to the heavy work, without the need to provide, generally a person is also difficult to work for more than 1 hour, and will work in the trenches, it was" taking barrels of "job, the keg out of what you want to do? To cater for the so-called "processing centre", is dealt with by "second class (rust repair paint)", and "fourth class (broken drum, need-cured)" these two.

因此,下面這一張,也是由A拍攝,經過220蘭嶼遊行而曝光出來的照片,看起來聳動,但是其實沒有什麼,它只是說明了「第四類」核廢料桶破碎、粉化的現狀:
Therefore, this one below, also a shooting, after 220 Orchid processions and exposure of the photo looks sensationalist, but nothing, it just illustrates the "fourth class" nuclear waste barrels crushing and Powdering the status quo:
6782386140_75ef2bb726_b.jpg「壕溝不是重點」,這一張看來嚇人的照片,其實算不了什麼;不過,需要補充說明一點,照片裡的工人所穿的「防輻衣」,其實只是一層普通不織布的材質,並不能防止直接輻射,只能夠防止粉塵(照片提供:受訪者A;關於「防輻衣」,請參閱「」文)。However, we should add, photos of the workers wear "anti-spoke up" but it was just a normal non-woven layer of material, does not prevent the direct radiation, can only prevent dust (photo credit: respondents a; on "anti-spoke wheels dressing", please see the "do not").
那麼,處理中心的狀況是怎麼樣呢?
So, what the situation of the processing centre?

「第二類除銹補漆桶,有一條生產線,桶子從輸送帶送進去,要經過『入料』、『除銹』、『底漆』、『底漆乾燥』、『面漆』、『面漆乾燥』、『暫存』這 些程序,完了之後,送到鋼構廠房去」;負責監督檢整施工品質的B說,「在處理中心裡,處理『第二類』核廢料桶的區塊,是一個『負壓』的空間,廢料桶進去和 出來,都要經過『氣閘門』、防止粉塵的外洩」,而「每一道工序,都是在格著『鉛玻璃』的『熱室』裡進行,工人不會直接接觸到廢料桶」;對於整個工序的進行 和相關的防護,沒有人比B更清楚了,而這個說法,也與原能會按照台電的官方說法所做的對外說明差不多(原能會說法,請參見「」文)。
"Second class except rust fill paint barrels, has a article line, barrels child from conveying with sent went in, to after" into material ", and" except rust ", and" Primer ", and" primer drying ", and" surface paint ", and" surface paint drying ", and" temporarily save "these program, finished zhihou, sent to steel structure plant to"; is responsible for oversight checked whole construction quality of b said, "in processing center in, processing" second class "nuclear waste barrels of blocks, is a" negative pressure "of space, waste barrels went in and out, are to after" gas gate ", and prevent dust of outside release", and " Each road processes, are is in cell with "lead glass" of "hot room" in for, workers does not directly contact to waste barrels "; for entire processes of for and related of protection, no people than b more clearly has, and this claims, also and original can will in accordance with Taiwan Electric of official claims by do of external description almost (original can will claims, please see" blue "text).

6809141600_df6819c502_b.jpg第二類「除銹補漆」桶的標準作業流程。資料來源「蘭嶼貯存場低放射性廢棄物桶除銹補漆作業程序書」。
Second category "rust repair paint" bucket of standard operating procedures. Data source "Lan Yu storage site of low-level radioactive waste barrels rust repair paint job programs".

在處理中心,工人接觸廢料桶的時間比起在壕溝裡面要長很多,如何在表面輻射劑量高達3,000微西弗的廢料桶旁邊工作8小時以上,而還可以把接收到的輻射劑量控制在300微西弗以下,這個「標準流程」,或許可以給我們一些解答。
At the processing centre, workers waste barrels longer than inside the trenches much longer, how to surface radiation doses of up to 3,000 microsieverts waste bucket next to work more than 8 hours, and can also keep radiation dose received at 300 West and wide following, this "standard process", maybe you can give us some answers.
「但是,如果這樣做的話,一天能夠處理(第二類)的量,大概就是20幾桶,如果日夜加班,最多不過30幾桶」B說。
"However, if you do so, can handle a day (second class), is probably the 20 a few barrels, if overtime day and night, but up 30 a few barrels" b said.

但在台電99年(2010)運轉年報裡,他們卻說,當年他們完成了15,937桶「第二類」廢料桶的檢整與回貯,以365天天天開工計算,平均一天竟可完成43桶?
But Taiwan Power 99 (2010) running in the annual report, they said, when they completed their 15,937 barrels of "second class" checked and back to the storage of the waste bins, started every day computing to 365 days, was able to complete 43 barrels a day on average?
「這絕不可能」,B說,「處理第二類桶的生產線,就只有這一條,就算增加人力也沒有用」,台電的說法,是永樂公司經過兩年的經驗,技術純熟了,所以 速度也增快了,「時間,問題是時間」,B說「好比說你煮一鍋飯,要半個小時,技術再純熟的大師傅來煮,也不可能5分鐘煮好」,指著標準流程圖,B說「你 看,這個『底漆乾燥』和『面漆乾燥』,各自要放置4個小時,而且這個暫放上好漆桶子的空間,也各自只能放22桶,這個時間和空間是沒有辦法省下來的,怎麼 算,一天都不可能做完40桶以上」。
"This never may", b said, "processing second class barrels of line, on only this a article, even increased human also no with", Taiwan Electric of claims, is Lo Wing-Lok company after two years of experience, technology cleverly has, so speed also increased fast has, "time, problem is time", b said "like said you cook a pot rice, to half a hours, technology again cleverly of chef to Cook, also impossible 5 minutes Cook good", refers to with standard flowchart, b said "you see, this" primer drying "and" surface paint drying ", You want the 4 hours each, and the space of temporary good paint bucket, their only 22 bucket, that is there is no way to save time and space, figuring, are unlikely to have done over 40 barrels a day ".
不可能?人家台電公司就是做到了。
It is not possible? People of Taiwan power company is done.
台電公司如何創造奇蹟般的效率?How did  Taipower create miraculous efficiency?

「你看,如果這是工人當你的車子做鈑金、上漆,這樣你可以接受嗎?」指著A提供的照片,B問到:  "You see, when your car do if this is workers on the sheet metal, paint, so that you can accept it? "Photos provided by pointing to a, b asked:

6782384318_2107727c3a_b.jpg6782384454_c3eafe55f1_b.jpg「第二類」核廢料桶的處理情形,底漆都沒有括除,只是在上面塗上一層油漆。(照片提供:受訪者A)
"Second class" barrels of nuclear waste processing scenarios, primer is not enclosed in addition, coated with a layer of paint on it. (Photo credit: respondents a)

「像這些桶子,底漆都沒有括除,直接在上面漆」A說,「這樣大概不需要一年,就又會再銹掉了」;這是在「趕工(參見「」文)下的品質,那這樣的工作,是在什麼樣的環境下完成的?有沒有按照標準程序?A拿出的照片,看起來沒有什麼,但是你如果了解「檢整」的過程和相關防護規範的話,就會知道這些照片的嚴重性:
"Like the keg, primer is not enclosed in addition, directly in the above painting" a says, "so probably don't need a year, it will rust away"; this is the "work (see the" Orchid ") under the quality that this kind of work, was completed in what kind of environment? In accordance with standard procedures? A the photos you take, what does not appear, but if you understand "check" process and related protection rule, you will know the gravity of these photos:
6928507631_dc0b93529b_b.jpg「處 理中心」實際處理核廢料桶的情形,左上角的圖是台電展示出的標準作業:在控制間裏面的「熱室」,用機械手臂、隔著鉛玻璃遙控操作。但實際上,工人在途中的 除銹、補漆作業時,完全沒有任何的防護、沒有穿戴防護衣物,就連輻射偵測計也沒有佩帶。A強調,這完全違背了「時間、距離、屏蔽」等輻防三大原則(照片提 供:受訪者A)
"Processing centre" actual situation of dealing with nuclear waste barrels, on the upper left corner of the diagram is showing standard jobs: in control inside the "hot room", with a mechanical arm, across the lead glass remote control operation. In practice, however, workers in rust en route, fill paint job, without any protection, did not wear protective clothing, even radiation detection meters wearing. A stress, which is totally at variance with, "time, distance and shielding" spoke against the three major principles such as (photo credit: respondents a)

上圖左上角那張小照片是「原能會以為貯存場工人在做什麼」,而大的照片,則是「貯存場工人實際在做什麼」。
Picture on the upper-left corner of the small photo is "original thought storage sites what workers were doing", and big prints, it is "storage site is actually what you are doing".
沒有「輸送帶」、沒有「熱室」、沒有「鉛玻璃」、沒有「機械手臂」,沒有任何的防護,工人就是在這樣的環境下,進行第二類核廢料桶的檢整、除銹補漆的作業。
There is no "conveyor belt" and no "hot room", without "leaded glass" and no "arm", without any protection, workers are in such circumstances, type II inspection of nuclear waste barrels, rust repair paint jobs.
「你看那個門,蘭嶼的風那麼大,門這樣打開,風捲進來,就直接把粉塵、括下來的油漆,全部都吹到外面去了」,這是他們說的「負壓設備」?
"You look at the door, the wind orchid is so big, doors open, wind volume comes in, is directly enclosed by dust, paints, all blow go out", this is what they said "negative pressure device"?
「這個地方,叫作『吊離站』」,B解釋,在處理中心裡面,處理第二類和第四類桶的區塊,是屬於「負壓設備」,利用「空壓機」把空氣抽進去,空氣只進 不出,所以廢料桶送進去要經過兩道「氣閘門」,但是從「氣閘門」出來,就是處理好的桶子,要做最後檢測、把它移走的地方。那裡車子要開進去,所以沒有「負 壓」,而桶子要到這裡,一定都是處理完了,從「氣閘門」裡送出來的。
"This local, called made" hanging away from station "", b explained, in processing center inside, processing second class and fourth class barrels of blocks, is belonging to "negative pressure device", uses "empty pressure machine" to air pumping went in, air only into does not out, so waste barrels sent went in to after two road "gas gate", but from "gas gate" out, is processing good of barrels child, to do last detection, and to it removed of local. Car to drive there, so there is no "negative pressure", the keg here, must be finished, from "air Gates" send it out.
6928507631_dc0b93529b_b.jpg依據受訪者B口述繪製出的「處理中心」平面圖。(製圖:孫窮理)
Respondents based on oral b plot "processing centre" floor plan. (Drawing: Sun Qiong)

核電臨時工的宿命  Nuclear power workers' fate

台電神速趕工的秘密終於揭曉了,可是,我們前面談到過,假設是每小時3毫西弗劑量的桶子,在它旁邊,6分鐘就達到貯存場規定一天所能承受的300微 西弗的劑量,假如工人在這裡工作一天8小時的話,可以吃到24毫西弗,只要工作兩天,就幾乎已經逼近法規規定在輻射設施工作人員每年50毫西弗的法定劑 量,這樣子的工作,工人所承受的傷害,實在是難以想像,那麼「劑量器」呢?「配章」、「輔助劑量器」是不是有紀錄?
Taiwan Electric swift Hey of secret finally announced has, but, we front spoke had, assumptions is each hours 3 cents West Francesca dose of barrels child, in it next to, 6 minutes on reached storage field provides day by can bear of 300 micro-Seaver of dose, if workers in here work day 8 hours words, can eat to 24 cents Seaver, as long as work two days, on almost has approximation regulations provides in radiation facilities staff annually 50 cents Seaver of statutory dose, such child of work, workers by bear of injury, is is difficult to imagine, "Dose"? "Assigned", "secondary dose" is on record?
「你看照片,他們哪裡有帶『劑量器』?」A拿出另一張照片:
"You see photos, where are they with" dose "? "A take out another photo:
6928505911_b72b8cca34_b.jpg在這個門的後面還掛著一大串的劑量器,A說。(照片提供:受訪者A)
Behind this door also hung a bunch of dose, a said. (Photo credit: respondents a)

「上工的時候,就把『劑量器』掛在這邊,你現在看到的是一個,在這個門的後面,還有一大串」A說。"Work time," dose "hanging on the side, you now see a, behind the door, there are a bunch of" a said.

利用短期工作的臨時工來從事高危險性的工作,是核能設施的通例,反正暴露在高劑量輻射下的工人,不會做太久的時間,就會離開這個工作,也因為工作期間短,追查起來也很不容易;而正如我們譯寫自紐約時報的這一篇「為了一份臨時工作,冒著輻射危險的日本工人」所接露出來的,如何避免承受的輻射量超過法定上限,導致無法工作,這也是大多來自家境貧困的核設施臨時工所必須面對的問題。然而,所謂的「避免」,並不是加強防護,而往往只是躲避偵測,對於亟需要工作的工人來說,這是不得已的選擇。
High risk of exploitation of short-term employment of temporary workers to work, is the usual nuclear energy facilities, anyway, under exposure to high doses of radiation workers, not too long time, will leave the job, but also because during the short, is not easy to trace; translation of which, as we wrote on this one since the New York Times "to a temporary job, Risk of radiation risk Japan workers "are exposed, how to avoid bear radiation levels exceeded the statutory limit, causing the work, which is mostly from impoverished nuclear facility workers must face the problem. However, the so-called "avoid" is not to strengthen protection, and often just avoid detection, for vulnerable workers, this is a last resort option.
接下來,我們將從工人的勞動條件來繼續這個話題…  TAO
Next, we will from the workers ' working conditions to continue this topic ... TAO

資料來源:2012-03-07/苦勞網/孫窮理/責任編輯-王顥中  http://www.coolloud.org.tw/node/67005
Data source: 2012-03-07//Sun Qiong elbow grease NET/Editor-Wang Haozhong

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